The advantage of using a C-type staircase is that it can fit in a squarish area. We can also install an elevator the central area of the staircase if necessary. This practice is generally frowned upon, as fire safety regulations advice to keep staircase and lift locations separately, but sometimes we have to use this layout in case of space constraints.

# RCC

## Design Methods for Singly reinforced Sections

#### Singly reinforced sections | Design of RCC structures

Earlier we discussed some basic terms in reference to singly reinforced sections design. It is important that you are thorough with the basic definitions and have complete understanding of stresses in concrete and steel. You should also possess the knowledge of reinforcement and terminology of beams which includes understanding singly reinforced beam, doubly reinforced beam, under reinforced beam, over reinforced beam and balanced reinforced beam.

There are two methods for the design of singly reinforced sections. In this article we will discuss the first method of singly reinforced section in a stepwise manner. The discussion will include the method for determining the value of neutral axis followed by a formula for the area of steel calculations.

Let,

b = breadth of a rectangular beam

d = effective depth of a beam

x = depth of neutral axis below the compression edge

Ast = cross-sectional area of steel in tension

σcbc = permissible compressive stress in concrete in bending

σst = permissible stress in steel

m = modular ratio

Neutral axis

Neutral axis is denoted as NA.

There are two methods for determining the neutral axis depending on the data given.

**In this article, we will discuss the first method followed by a couple of numericals for your understanding and then move on to the second method.**

## RCC Building Design and Construction | Structural Design

#### Step by step procedure to RCC building design | Design of RCC Structures

A building is composed of various structural components such as Foundations, Plinth beams, Columns, Beams, Slab, Staircase, Doors and Windows.

**Design of Foundation | RCC Building Design**

Foundation design is the structural component from where the RCC design is initiated. The foundation design guide discussed earlier includes in detail the design procedure for isolated column footing. Column footing is the most commonly used type of foundation. It serves a variety of different buildings.

- Design of Foundation – the most commonly used foundation is Column footing.
- Calculation of loads in Foundation Design Calculation of loads is very important for the purpose of structural design. This article outlines the thumb rules for the calculation of various loads in foundation design.
- Types of Foundations This is a generic article on different types of foundations. It covers some commonly used shallow foundations and also explains pressure distribution under a foundation.

**Design of Beams | RCC Building Design**

**Beams are mainly classified into two types:**

**Doubly reinforced beam (most commonly used in RCC Construction)****Singly reinforced beam**

A series of articles have been written for the design of Singly reinforced sections. The articles include basic definitions and formulas, understanding stresses and modular ratios, assumptions for singly reinforced sections, Design method 1, Design method 2, Moment of resistance and a number of solved numerical examples.

**Design of Columns | RCC Building Design**

The article discusses the classification criteria for a column, and design of different types of reinforcements for columns which include longitudinal, transverse and helical reinforcements.

#### Thumb rules for designing a Column Layout

#### The articles important thumb rules to be followed for column layout design. Three important thumb rules have been discussed.

- Size of the Columns
- Distance between Columns
- Alignment of columns