Height of Collimation and Rise and Fall Method | Methods of Levelling

Methods of Levelling | Guide to Surveying and Levelling

In this article, we will discuss two important methods of Levelling. We will also study these Methods with the help of Numerical Examples in our successive articles.

There are two Methods of Levelling:

  1. Height of Collimation Method
  2. Rise and Fall Method

Height of Collimation Method

This method is simple and easy.

Reduction of levels is easy.

Visualization is not necessary regarding the nature of the ground.

There is no check for intermediate sight readings;

This method is generally used where more number of readings can be taken with less number of change points for constructional work and profile levellings.

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Types of Ranging | Chain Surveying

Methods of Ranging in Chain Surveying | Guide to Surveying and Levelling

In measuring a survey line, the chain has to be laid out on the ground between the stations.

If the line is short, the chain could be put in alignment easily but if it is long or the end station is not clearly visible, then intermediate points has to be established in line with end points to know the directions of the line by ranging.

Types of Ranging

There are two types of ranging:

  1. Direct ranging
  2. Indirect ranging

Direct ranging

Direct ranging is possible when the stations are intervisible.

Ranging is done by eye-judgement. Ranging rods are erected vertically beyond each end of survey line.

The surveyor stands 2m beyond the ranging rod while the assistant folds the ranging rod vertically in the intermediate stations.

The ranging rod is held roughly in line by the thumb and fore-finger.

The surveyor directs the assistant to move the rod to the left or right until the three ranging rods appear to be in a straight line.

To avoid errors due to the ranging rods not being vertical, the lower end of the rod are cited for alignment.

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Types of Scales in Engineering Surveying

Types of Scales | Engineering Surveying

In the previous article, we discussed briefly on the topic of “Scales in Surveying” where we came across an important term “Representative factor” which forms an important part in understanding the scales in Surveying.

In this article, we will discuss different types of scales used in Surveying…

The scales are classified into four categories:

  1. Plain Scale
  2. Diagonal Scale
  3. Vernier Scale
  4. Scale of chords

Lets go on with the discussion of types of scales briefly for our better understanding…

Plain Scale

Plain Scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only. For example, measurements such as units and lengths, metres and decimetres etc.

Plain Scale
Plain Scale

Six different plain scales in metric used by engineers, Architects and Surveyors.

Diagonal Scale

On diagonal scale, it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres, decimetres and centimetres, units , tens and hundreds; yards, feet and inches etc.

A short length is divided into number of parts using the principle of similar triangle in which sides are proportional.

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Height of Instrument Method | Surveying and Levelling

Height of the Instrument Method

The following readings were observed with a levelling instrument, the instrument was shifted after 5th and 11th reading.

0.585, 1.010, 1.735, 3.295, 3.775(5th)

0.350, 1.300, 1.795, 2.575, 3.375

3.895 (11th), 1.735, 0.635, 1.605

Determine the RLs of various points if the reduced level (RL) of a point on which the first reading was taken is 136.440 gives the height of collimation method and applies the check.

Station BS IS FS HI RL Remarks

















RL of I point 






















1112 0.635 1.605 130.805


Sum of BS=2.670 Sum of FS =9.275

HL = RL + BS

= 136.440 + 0.585

= 137.025

RL = HL – IS


(Summation of BS)-(Summation of FS) = Last RL – First RL

2.670 – 9.275 = 129.835 – 136.440

-6.605 = -6.605