Next Generation Internet | Web 3.0

Web 3.0, a phrase coined by John Markoff of the New York Times in 2006, refers to a supposed third generation of Internet-based services that collectively comprise what might be called ‘the intelligent Web’—such as those using semantic web, microformats, natural language search, data mining, machine learning, recommendation agents, and artificial intelligence technologies – which emphasize machine-facilitated understanding of information in order to provide a more productive and intuitive user experience.

Web 3.0 Next Generation Internet

CEO of, Eric Schmidt gave a speech about Web 3.0 in Korea in May 2007…

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Causes of Foundation Damage | Fungus Rot and Insects

Causes of Foundation Damage and its  Prevention

In my earlier articles, we discussed one of the important causes of foundation damage “Erosion”. Getting a clarity on the subject helps you prevent your structure from further damage or any damage that might happen in future. We have also discussed “how analysis of foundation damage is to be carried out”.

In this article, we will discuss in detail the foundation damage occurring due to Rot and Insects. These elements are also responsible for foundation damage and if ignored or left unnoticed can cause severe damage resulting in structural failure.

Fungus rot causing Foundation damage
Fungus rot causing Foundation damage

Types of foundation damage can be classified as follows:


  1. Natural rock
  2. Brick



Moisture damage

  1. Frost wedging
  2. Salt bloom

Settlement in the ground

  1. Groundwater lowering
  2. Limited bearing capacity of the ground (land)
  3. Excavations performed below the foundations and poor quality of backfill
  4. Increased load on the ground leading to failure
  5. Damage to the neighbouring houses
  6. Increased load
  7. Damage (by removing) to the neighbouring houses
  8. Horizontal movement occurring in the ground

Frost heave/adfreezing

Alum shale

Let us move on with the discussion on Rot and Insects causing foundation damage.

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Science of Structural Engineering | Design of Steel Structures

Scope and Importance of Structural Engineering

Structural Engineering deals with the mechanism of the structural system that is it deals with structural analysis and structural design. The structural engineering plays an important and necessary part in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, naval engineering, aeronautical engineering and in all the specialized phases of engineering. Structural Engineers are like puzzle masters.

Millennium Dome
Millennium Dome

It not just deals with the various different fields of engineering but is also interrelated with Architectural Design. Understanding the Interrelationship of Structural Engineering and Architectural Design is very essential for an engineer and an Architect…

We have already discussed “Art of Structural Engineering” in our previous articles….

People are usually curious to know what Structural Engineering is like. What is the work of a Structural Engineer??? What are Steel Structures?

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Design of Road Junctions | Types of Road Junctions

Road Junctions

Road Junctions are designed at places where vehicular traffic can move in different directions in a systematic way. Road Junctions decrease the probability of accidents. The traffic at Road junctions is controlled and resumed in a systematic way to proceed further in their respective directions with the help of traffic signals.

Road Junction in Taiwan
Road Junction in Taiwan

Design of Road Junctions is a crucial subject. Understanding the nature of traffic, the kind of area, density of population etc is very important so as to propose a suitable road Junction design.

Earlier we discussed;

  1. Means of Access and Design factors to be considered for the design of roads
  2. Important elements to be considered in Road Design

In this article, we will study all the major types of road Junctions in detail.

On the basis of the shape of the Road Junctions, they are named as:

  1. T-Junction
  2. Y-Junction
  3. Acute Angle Junction
  4. Staggered Junction
  5. Multiple Junction

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Case study of Osmania Arts College, Hyderabad, India | Heritage Structure

Osmania Arts College, Hyderabad

Osmania Arts College is located in the city of Hyderabad, India. It lies in the campus of Osmania University. This structure has come to be known as the epitome of unity between Hindus and Muslims. This great structure portrays Indo-sarcenic Architecture, that is the fusion of Islamic and Hindu Architecture is clearly seen.

Osmania Arts College, Hyderabad, India
Osmania Arts College, Hyderabad, India

This building dominates the entire University Campus. It serves as a heritage structure for the state of Andhra Pradesh. It was constructed in the year 1918 by the Seventh Nizam of Hyderabad Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan. This structure though resembles a palace was originally constructed and designed as college. It is the third oldest higher learning institution established in the erstwhile princely state of Hyderabad.

Design Concept

Cent percent emphasis is given on the symmetrical planning of the structure. The college building is symmetrical in plan and also in elevation in all respects. Beautiful pointed arched have been adopted from the Islamic Architecture originated from Persia and the ornamentation at the top of the structure has been taken from the Hindu Architectural style.

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Concept of an Underground City and Skyway Systems

An underground city is a network of tunnels that connects various buildings below the street level. These may include office blocks, metro stations, underground shopping malls.

Montreal's Underground City Network
Montreal's Underground City Network

Underground structures or networks are usually found in countries with cold climate. For example, the temperature in Canada in winter is -10 degree Celsius. The climate in Canada does not permit free movement over ground. That is the reason for the development of underground cities. Montreal’s RESO is the world’s largest Underground city in Canada. It is popularly known as “Double Decker City“.

Underground cities usually have entrances through public spaces. The underground structure rises over ground and provides for a proper entrance to the underground structure.

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Importance of time management and Cost effectiveness

Time Management in Construction

In this day and age of stiff competition and cost-cutting, Time and Cost overruns in any construction project are extremely undesirable. Most of the time, a Project Manager might be able to mitigate emerging problems, but sometimes it cannot be prevented. Time overrun causes delay in completion of the project, and cost overrun might result in an increase in the budget of the owner or stakeholders of that project. This report, based on a landscape project, concludes that the owner / management committee affects the overall completion of the project on scheduled time & estimated cost.

Time management in Construction
Time management in Construction

Landscape project could have been completed in time and within the estimated cost, but undue intervention, change in the scope of project midway and late action by owner / management committee led to cost and time overrun.

Time overrun results into increase in the total cost of the project. This extra amount is due to construction waste, which could have been eliminated.

This study concludes that there should be a continuous monitoring of the work. This monitoring system should be integrated with various aspects of planning. This can help in reducing time & cost overrun.

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Design of Multiplexes – New era of Entertainment

Design of Multiplexes

Multiplexes are the new areas of entertainment as the people have become more movie loving and comfort savvy. The multiplexes are equipped with state-of-art theatres, multiple screens, technically advanced acoustics, comfortable large seating areas, entertaining leisure spaces like food courts, lounge bars and gaming zones. Multiplexes are usually located in malls as it is more profitable and they also complement each other.

Design of Multiplexes
Design of Multiplexes

Multiplexes ideally require an average area of about 50,000 to 100000 square feet so that all the requirements are suitably fitted in. A definition of a multiplex actually means, it must have at least 15 or more screens but in some of the Asian countries, multiplexes have no more than 8 screens in a single complex.

A multiplex is mostly preferred in a mall to standalone multiplex. Nowadays, people prefer a one stop destination for the entertainment of the entire family combining shopping, playing games and watching movies, all under one roof. So a multiplex in a mall makes an intelligent choice for the developer. Besides, the design of an Architect, interior designers, services, theatres, acoustics and lighting consultant’s services are indispensible.

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VNIT – Nagpur | Energy Efficient Structures


The major concept is that it merges with the design of the city. Embodiment of special characters of Nagpur in the design. Principles of energy efficiency and Green building technology have been incorporated in the design.

VNIT, Nagpur
VNIT, Nagpur

As the world reels under the stress of economic recession and Peak oil, efforts are being made to minimize the use of energy, to maximize return on invested resources by recycling and optimum use of natural resources. Such efforts have culminated into the new Green building movement across the planet.

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Minimum Standards for Structural Design | RCC Structures

Thumb rules for Structural Design | RCC Structures

I highly recommend use of advanced structural design software like ETabs or Staad Pro for design of structures. This is very important. There are so many variables in design of a structure that no minimum standards can be accurate. This guide can be used for design of very small structures, maybe up to G+1 floors. But I would still recommend use of professional software. Every structural designer should learn these software. Use of manual methods is outdated. Manual method is only used for checks. Real design is done with the help of computers, with very advanced design concepts like pushover analysis, seismic analysis, wind loads simulation and many advanced methods.

You can hire me for your structural design need. Contact me.

Design of RCC Structural Components

In this article, I will discuss the minimum standards that can be followed for the design of RCC structural components of a structure, such as columns, beams, slab and foundation. We will also discuss the minimum safe standards for the reinforcing bars that are to be used for the design of the above mentioned Structural Components.

Minimum cross-sectional dimension for a Column: is  9″x 12″ (225 MM x 300 MM) which is the minimum recommended size. I have designed hundreds of buildings, and never had the misfortune of any structural component ever failing due to loads. I always use M20 grade concrete for construction, as it is the minimum recommended grade of concrete is IS 456:2000. Please don’t skimp on the quality of concrete. The minimum steel in a 9″ x 9″ column is 4 bars of 12 MM with stirrups of 8 MM steel rings at a distance of 150 MM centre to centre. In a 9″ x 12″ column, I add two more bars, to take the total to 6 bars of 12 MM diameter. This design can be safe for up to G+1 floors. But there are a lot of other factors involved.

Also check out:

Thumb rules for making a Column Layout

Construction on Site | Design of RCC Structures

Construction on Site | Design of RCC Structures[/caption]

Minimum RCC beam size should not be less than 9″x 9″ (225MM X 225MM), with an additional slab thickness of 125 MM. I generally use a minimum of 4 bars, with 2 bars of 12 MM thickness in the bottom of the beam, and 2 bars of 10 MM at the top of the beam. I maintain a concrete cover of 40 MM. I recommend use of M20 grade of concrete (1 part cement : 1.5 parts sand : 3 parts aggregate : 0.5 parts water).

Minimum thickness of RCC slab I recommend is 5″ (125MM) because a slab may contain electrical pipes embedded into them which could be 0.5″ or more for internal wiring, which effectively reduces slab depths at certain places, causing cracking, weakening and water leakage during rains. So, a minimum thickness of 5″ should be maintained.

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