Concept of Fire Zoning | National Building Code

Concept of Fire Zoning | Division of Fire Zones in the city

Concept of Fire Zoning is based on the landuse pattern of the city or town.  This article is written in reference with National Building Code. The concept of Fire Zoning includes:

  1. Demarcation
  2. Number and Designation of Fire Zones
  3. Change in Fire Boundaries
  4. Overlapping of Fire Zones
  5. Temporary Buildings or Structures
  6. Restrictions on Existing Buildings


The city or area is demarcated into distinct zones based on fire hazard inherent in the buildings and structures according to the type of occupancy. The zones in which these areas are divided are termed as “Fire Zones”.

Number and Designation of Fire Zones

The division of the area of the city into different zones depends on various factors such as:

  • Existing Layout
  • Types of building construction
  • Classification of existing buildings based on occupancy
  • Expected future development of the city or area

The division of the area into number of zones depends upon the type of occupancy and the area extent. For example, in large cities like Mumbai and Hyderabad, three fire zones may suffice while in smaller cities or towns, one or two zones may be adequate.

Division of Fire Zones depending on the land use Pattern

  1. Fire Zone no.1
  2. Fire Zone No. 2
  3. Fire Zone No. 3
  4. Fire Zone No. 4

Fire Zone No. 1

  • Residential
  • Educational
  • Institutional
  • Assembly
  • Small Business
  • Retail Mercantile
  • Under developed areas

Fire Zone No. 2

  • Business Zones
  • Industrial Buildings
  • Areas which are under developed

Fire Zone No. 3

  • Areas having high hazard industrial buildings
  • Storage buildings
  • Buildings for hazardous use

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